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What is Die Casting?

10/1/2013 11:54:11 AM | by Anonymous

Die Castings

Die casting is a process that casts various metals from their molten state into mold. The molds are then called “dies” in most foundry environments. The die is typically filled with non-ferrous metals such as zinc and aluminium. It is filled in an application that is of high pressure. This ensures that the die cast material is at the desired level of density. The casting equipment along with the metal dies usually represents large capital costs. This tends to limit the process to high volume production. Manufacture of parts using the die casting process is simple. It only involves four main steps which keeps the incremental cost per item low. It is suited for a large quantity of small to medium sized castings. This is why casting produces die more than any other casting process.

Die castings are characterized by a good finish on the surface and consistent dimensions. The two variants are pore-free die casting used to eliminate gas defects. Direct injection die casting is used with zinc casting to reduce scrap and increase the yield. The metal is then injected into a specific mold or cavity that is created. It is then machined to create opposing steel dies. Once the cooling process is completed, the cast is then removed from the mold. It is next buffed or burred to create a product that has been manufactured based on exact specifications.

The process of die casting has gradually evolved since its original inception to become more efficient in terms of production and decrease of creation of scrap materials. When the molten metal has been injected into the mold, it uses between 1500 pounds to over 25000 pounds per square inch of pressure applied. This is done to ensure that the entire mold is being filled with material to create a consistent and full mold shot. The term shot refers to each mold being injected. Since there can be multiple molds within a single casing and multiple castings produced within a shot.

Die casting has been a valuable mean of producing hardened metal products for a long time. It includes the production of engines. Many others are also cast into mold from its molten state such as cast-iron post and pans and other car parts. This method of production has been used in various settings. One of which would be the industrial setting to create a multitude of different products. Mainly because the casting process is able to produce parts of virtually any shape and size. This is depending on the mold that has been created for the metal to be injected or poured into.


Any virtual part is needed for a specific application to be cast from any metal. One of the most popular is aluminium. The ease of machining applications and the low melting point of aluminium makes it an easily manipulated material to be worked with. Moreover, this would result in a lower cost of production.


The advantages of die casting would include the excellent dimension accuracy, smooth cast surfaces, thinner walls can be cast as compared to sand and permanent mold casting, inserts can be cast in such as threaded casts, heating elements and high strength bearing surfaces, reduces secondary machining operations, rapid production rates, casting tensile strength and casting of low fluidity metals. The disadvantages are however in order to die cast the capital cost is very high. Both casting equipment required and the dies are relatively costly components as compared to other casting processes.



Therefore, in order to make die casting an economic process a large volume is recommended and required. Other disadvantages also include limited the process to high fluidity metals and casting weight has to be between thirty grams and ten kilograms. In the standard process, the final casting will have a small amount of porosity. This is to prevent heat treating or welding as the heat causes the gas to expand. This in turn causes micro-cracks inside the part and exfoliation on the surface.


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