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Types of A.C. Electric Motors

10/7/2013 8:12:54 AM | by Anonymous

Electric Motors: A.C.

Many vehicles today are adapting the electric motor as it is less costly to run than a petrol engine. Due to the fact that there is no combustion in an electric motor, harmful gases are not omitted into the environment. There are two types of electric motors: Direct Current and Alternating Current. This article will only be discussing A.C. motors.


A.C. motors are not as efficient as D.C. motors but they are much cheaper to make. This makes A.C. motors more suitable for machines that do not require a lot of power. Another good thing about A.C. motors is that they are able to easily change the rotational power. This makes them ideal for appliances such as the hand drill or mixers as such appliances require smaller sized motors, low cost and variable speed.


There are many types of A.C. electric motors such as single phase and three phase motors. Single phase A.C. motors are usually used in household appliances, whereas three phase A.C. motors are used in factories and industrial settings. One of the most common examples of a single phase A.C. motor is the universal motor as it is able to run with D.C. current as well.


A universal motor is also known as a series-wound motor and it is designed to run with both DC and AC power. By being able to run on DC power, the universal motor is able to enjoy advantages such as compact design and high torque. However, since the universal motor has to accommodate to both power sources, conflict often occurs. This leads to high maintenance costs and a shorter life span.


Another type of motor is the A.C. split-phase induction motor. These types of motors can be found in larger household appliances such as clothes dryers and air conditioners. For an A.C. motor, it is able to generate a large amount of starting torque. Split-phase induction motors use a complex process to run, but this makes it more efficient. The highly resistant nature of the motor reduces energy loss.


Another common type of A.C. motor is the shaded pole motor. Unlike the split-phase motor, shaded pole motors have a lower starting torque. This makes them more efficient in appliances such as dishwashers, fans and washing machines. The shaded pole motor uses shading coils made out of copper to create a magnetic field. The poles is wrapped by the copper shading coil, hence its name. The amount of torque can be adjusted by moving the coils closer or further away from the coils, the nearer the coil is from the pole the faster it will spin.


Another type of A.C. motors are synchronous motors. Synchronous motors are designed with magnetized rotors, using magnetic fields to create the circular motion. Due to inertia, it may be difficult for such motors to start. Rotors are used to build up momentum. These types of motors are useful when a high amount of power is needed. If a high amount of power is needed, a piece of equipment called the capacitor can be used.


Another type of motor is the two phase motor, which consists of a start motor and a run motor. The start motor is used to start the electric motor and the run motor is used to maintain the power at that level. Having two phases eliminates the need for a brush in an A.C. motor. This not only increases the life expectancy of a motor but it also extends the life expectancy. This is because brushes cause wear and tear leading to failure of individual components of the engine. However, the motors torque is fixed, making them good for equipment such as compressors


Overall, electric motors have come a long way as an alternative to petrol engines. With the growing concern of the negative impacts of petrol engines affecting our environment, we will definitely see the use of A.C. electric motors in the years to come.

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