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Learn more about Electric Motors

5/4/2015 12:31:04 PM | by Hayasinth

Electric Motors

Electric Motors is basically used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and it follows a core principle of electromagnetic induction for its functionality, electromagnetic induction is the process of producing an electromotive force across a conductor which is exposed in varying magnets.

Electric Motors operate when the wire which carries current is positioned in a place that consists of magnetic field, where the wire experiences force.

The Size of the force through the wire determines the speed of the motor spin considering the amount of current to the wire, length of wire and the strength of magnetic field.

In formula, it can be express:
Force = (current x wire length x magnetic field)

There are many ways to design an electric motor and it also has many types depending on application and characteristics needed such as the speed, weight and size, accuracy of the speed and position control and cost.

Electric Motors have two different classifications the DC Motors and AC Motors.
• DC Motors - coverts the electrical power energy into mechanical energy and it is composed of armature winding and powered by DC sources.
• AC Motors - is a type of electric motor directed by alternating current and it is operated with 2 rotating magnetic field on the stator and rotor respectively. It turns in a fixed direction and speed.

The reliability of motor performance can be expressed by different parameters such as:
• Rated speed – the speed measured in shaft expresses RPM – Revolutions per minute.
• Torque – force produced in a given point due to applied force.
• Horse Power – measure of work expended.
• Torque Speed – performance and reliability of the motor.

An Electric Motor generally consists of different components for its operations and it is constructed precisely for accurate and reliable function suitable for the needed application.

Basic Parts of Electric Motor

• Armature / rotator – made from electromagnet by coiling of thin wires around (2) two or more metal core poles. It is the pole piece of the electromagnet/ permanent magnet.
• Field Magnet – the magnet used in producing magnetic field in a device.
• Axle – it is the one that holds the armature inside the body of the motor and freely rotate inside, known as the central shaft of the motor.
• Commutator – plates attached in the axle and reverse the current direction between rotor and electrical generator.
• Brushes – device that carries outs current between fixed wires and moving parts.

Electric Motor system applies when the flowing electric current in a loop will produce magnetic field across the loop, when the loop is being surrounded with field of an added magnet, the loop revolves and produces force known as torque resulting mechanical motion.

Motors are constructed distinctly to each other depending on its application and consumption of power. It can be widely used in a wide range of applications such as appliances, gadgets, equipments, machine and a lot more.

Electric Motors can be applied to:
• Cars
• Clocks
• Drills
• Fans
• Fridges
• Hair Dryers
• Vacuum cleaners
• Water pumps
• Industrial equipment
• Electronic equipments
• And many more

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